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​1. Old-fashioned dishonest political bosses

2. Criminal groups want to choose sheriff, prosecutor or judge, to avoid prison.

3. Thieves want to benefit from millions of dollars in contracts, land use decisions or other regulations. Governments in the US spend $7 trillion per year, and are chosen by 100 million ballots per year. So the average ballot controls $70,000 of spending, half federal, half state and local.

4. Foreigners who want to support one side, or destabilize government by defeating incumbents. Republicans think domestic hackers are more likely. Democrats think foreigners are a bigger threat. Voters in whichever party wins have little support for retaliation.

5. Examples of software errors and hackers, in elections and elsewhere

6. Fires and Floods
1870 Cartoon of Boss Tweed saying he can win if he counts the votes

Checking results from election computers:

      Many states don't check results

      Officials can check ballots & images

      Officials can check eligibility

      Citizens can check in some states

      Checklist for election observers

      Groups of citizens cooperate in each state

Software errors and hacks are widespread:
     Errors by election machines in past elections
​     Equipment is at high risk at manufacturers
     Hacks of machines not connected to the internet

Find your elected officials and candidates
     Find their staff
     Comments on Federal and state laws and rules
     Government prosecutions are rare; penalties are light

Draft Report Card on state elections

Other basic steps for good elections
      Tally sheets for Hand Counting

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